This post, written by Rev. Dr. Kate Wiebe, originally was published March 28, 2019, on the ICTG blog.
Following a death, a shadow often stretches across what can feel like a long valley in life. Sure, there are times when our neighbors or loved ones live long and vibrant lives. There are those people living in “blue zones” in the world, for example, who tend to die in their sleep, often . Their loved ones celebrate their life well-lived. More often than not, though, death comes with little, if any, warning. Death grieves our spirits, individually and collectively. Sometimes, even, death wrenches our hearts in traumatic ways.
Incredibly, human beings possess a seemingly miraculous ability to heal after trauma. Often involuntarily and naturally, we conduct a process of metabolizing the energy of our loss(es), identifying resources, and, even, growing through the aftermath of tragedy. Though this process occurs through individuals, it also appears to function best in concert with survivors perceiving care from others along the way. In particular, care that bears witness to grieving and healing processes appear to be most effective for instigating personal healing processes. Amazingly, it does not seem to matter much who extends care, as long as care is extended.
In particular, care that bears witness to grieving and healing processes appear to be most effective for instigating personal healing processes.
Care may be expressed by strangers, like when Peter Levine experienced the care of a bystander after a car hit him suddenly when he moved through a crosswalk.
Care may be expressed by small groups of close friends or family, like in Blue Zone areas as researched and described by Dan Buettner and National Geographic.
Care may be expressed by professionals or peer counselors, like in cases where therapists conduct EMDR, psychological first aid, trauma-informed pastoral counseling, or trauma-informed chaplaincy or spiritual direction.
Care may be expressed by fellow survivors, like in cases of online or in-person support groups of survivors who have shared traumatic history. “Firehouse families” – a self-proclaimed, precious, and sacred term for the persons who gathered in the firehouse next door to Sandy Hook Elementary School on December 14, 2012 – is one type of group of people who support one another as only they know how based on their shared history.
A skilled caregiver journeys alongside, valuing these senses, and, along the way, witnesses with the survivor to the range of resources available to meet whatever need the survivor may sense.
Renowned traumatologists, including Peter Levine (2010), Babette Rothschild (2003, 2008), Basel van der Kolk (2014), and Charles Figley (1995), all describe ways in which most effective forms of care after trauma view the survivor as an expert. That is to say, the caregiver highly values how a survivor inherently senses their needs along the Valley of the Shadow of Death, whether that need is to grieve, to postpone grief for a time, to resolve grief, or any other type of need along the way. Survivors sense what they need, in idiosyncratic ways, at their own pace, and even through repetitious, cyclical, or pendulum patterns. A skilled caregiver journeys alongside, valuing these senses, and, along the way, witnesses with the survivor to the range of resources available to meet whatever need the survivor may sense.
Today, many survivors are saying that, as a country, we can do much better at valuing the needs and pacing of survivors, particularly those who are surviving violence. For example, following the news that Jeremy Richman, father of Avielle Richman and co-founder of the Avielle Foundation, died by suicide, fellow “firehouse family” member Nelba Marquez-Greene tweeted the following statement:
As soon as 12/14 happened we went right to “Newtown Strong”. It was premature and superficial. I wish we would have said and still say, “Newtown Grieves”. There is strength in grieving. We can acknowledge grief, hope and loss together. There are so many expectations on survivors to change the world. You lose a loved one to gun violence/are injured/survive a shooting AND THEN the weight of world change is on your shoulders. You can’t even grieve. Everyone wants so desperately for you to be okay- that you can never, ever say you’re not. I have rarely met a survivor that has NOT thought about being with their lost loved one. It’s real. We are here. This culture is grief averse and our victim support service structure sucks.
These are important words for all of us who practice caregiving – whether as teachers, coaches, nonprofit or business leaders, or faith leaders – to hear.
Today, many survivors are saying that, as a country, we can do much better at valuing the needs and pacing of survivors, particularly those who are surviving violence.
In what ways is your organization or community caring for survivors, valuing what they sense they need, and pointing out resources along the way? We invite you to share best practices in the comments below. If you are looking for ways your organization – whether a school, nonprofit, congregation, or business – can serve survivors with more effective care, contact us. We’d be glad to help you with education, guides, and support.
Make a contribution today to help educate community-based and faith-based organizational leaders in developing long-term care for individuals and families impacted by violence.
This post, written by Rev. Dr. Kate Wiebe, originally was published April 26, 2019, on the ICTG blog.
One of the questions our staff repeatedly receives is: How do we know when we've reached a new phase in disaster response?
Several more questions often follow: How do we know if we have reached "disillusionment"? How do we know if we are fully into the rebuilding phase? How do we know if we are healed and have reached a "new normal" or "wiser living" phase?
It's helpful to remember the phases are not prescriptive and progressing through them is more of an art than a science. Each group moves through the phases at their own pace and in their own way.
Over the years, many people have critiqued the phases – which we encourage! If this chart does not adequately represent your community's experience, then how might you draw it in a way that does? It's meant to be a conversation tool that aids your group in identifying together your own collective experience, while providing a sense of what has generally gone on for others.
Each group moves through the phases at their own pace and in their own way.
Still, one of the ongoing and more consistent critiques has been how this chart does not adequately represent the long term mental, emotional, and spiritual care needs that appear to persist for many years, perhaps especially following incidents of mass violence, technological disaster, chronic violence, or abuse. The senses of loss of life, loss of community, and loss of trust in fellow human beings can linger for many years.
Our colleague, Rev. Matt Crebbin, from the Healing the Healers project often describes healing after human-caused disaster as learning how to dance again, but now with a limp. "We've lost a part of ourselves that we will never get back," he says.
At ICTG, we encourage community organizations to host spaces and rituals where survivors can communicate what's happened, express their grief, metabolize their stress or anxiety, and be nourished through their senses of mourning or depression.
Recently, the 20th year marker of the Columbine school shooting, as well as recent deaths related to the Sandy Hook and Parkland school shootings, have reminded us all how persistent the senses of disorientation and heartache can be.
At ICTG, we encourage community organizations to host spaces and rituals where survivors can communicate what's happened, express their grief, metabolize their stress or anxiety, and be nourished through their senses of mourning or depression. If you'd like to discuss or learn more about how your organization might do that, contact us. We'd be glad to hear from you. Also, you can share helpful tips with others in the comments below about how your community has healed or is continuing in healing.
Many reasons exist why an organization may come to a point of needing to change its internal culture. Some of these include patterns of abuse, patterns of fraud, patterns of betrayal among leadership, or patterns of racism, sexism, or phobias which lead to oppressing certain persons.
If your organization is considering ways to change internal culture, here are some questions to help you focus and be effective in making important changes:
Keep in mind that the more specific you can be at the outset in making plans for cultural change, the more effective you can be. There are additional considerations to keep in mind, but these will help any organization begin to create an effective map forward.
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This post, written by Rev. Dr. Kate Wiebe, originally was published September 24, 2019, on the
When people talk about emergency or disaster preparedness, they most often refer to exit or evacuation strategies, communication plans, and stocking supplies. They rarely, if ever, refer to the mental, emotional, and spiritual practices proven to help survivors thrive beyond adversity.
What are these healthful practices?
According to researchers like Peter Levine (2012), Bessel van der Kolk (2014), Nadine Burke-Harris (2018), and Nagoski and Nagoski (2019), the keys to thriving beyond adversity are:
... paying attention to how your body feels restored will help you make key decisions about what will sustain you during long-term recovery.
Perhaps what is most compelling about research into the practices that help sustain resiliency is that these acts often are the very elements that make up a community's culture. The food, the dance, the art, the patterns of rest, the family gatherings and neighborly interactions. These are the very things – research is showing – that we ought to embrace in times of crisis and not neglect.
In what ways do you or your community maintain healthy cultural practices, even and especially in times of crisis? How have you seen these practices sustain you? Share in the comments below.
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Conducting an Initial Assessment for Dismantling Systems of Racism: An Evaluation Tool for Individuals and Organizations
As we continue to process in each of our communities the ways that injustices can be addressed and repaired, White persons around you, in your communities, congregations, and teams, or you as a White person, may be re-evaluating systems of racism and wondering what specifically can be done next.
Here are some important practices for White persons to consider, for participating in dismantling systems of racism within one's immediate environments:
Conduct an Inventory of Relationships
These are only a few of the questions to be asking yourself related to systems of racism in which you may participate, including professional or work environments, local government, literature, and real estate.
As you review your answers to the questions above, if you found that your numbers are low, what steps can you take to increase the numbers in answer to those questions?
Breaking down the insulation that the above questions might reveal requires continual intentional actions in which you see and perceive Persons of Color as genuinely esteemed persons in your life. Not as people in need of your help. Not as people to "enable." Rather, as people to learn from, be guided by, and with whom to partner. As peers and leaders in your life.
While it may be relatively easy to increase your reading of Persons of Color authors – and I would encourage you to do that – I would also encourage you to explore the ways you can increase numbers in response to the other questions. This may take harder, or more uncomfortable, work in some cases. It may require having hard conversations with persons in your work, school, congregation, or local real estate arenas.
Having these conversations, with thoughtfulness and a focus on listening carefully, are some of the ways you can begin to make a difference.
Thank you for being committed to care in the face of ongoing collective trauma. Your care restores.
Further reading and additional resources:
This post, written by Rev. Dr. Kate Wiebe, originally was published on September 24, 2019, on the ICTG blog.
What is the Village of Care? You likely have heard the adage, "it takes a village to raise a child." Well, in our experience through the mission of the Institute to provide leaders with restorative strategies after collective loss, we find that in most cases it takes a village – a village of care providers – to heal a person or a community after trauma or disaster.
Who participates in the Village of Care? Everyone who self-identifies as a common or professional caregiver, including, and not limited to:
Repeatedly and frequently, we hear any one of the above types of persons describe a moment when they felt like the circumstances a person brought to their attention seemed beyond the scope of their expertise or responsibility. For example, a financial advisor recently shared with me about how she wishes she had taken more advantage of psychology course offerings in college, because she often finds her clients sharing with her intimate details about their family or regrets about certain life choices and her being one of the first persons they ever shared those details with. "Making decisions about your end-of-life financial plans brings a lot up for people." We talked about how she might find it helpful to have a ready referral or two for a therapist, should one of her clients find that helpful. Though, we both recognized, sometimes it just means a lot to have the person you are with really listen and appreciate where you're coming from.
... we find that in most cases it takes a village – a village of care providers – to heal a person or a community after trauma or disaster.
Cultivating personal and professional care networks (like the ones you can find in our Resource Guides) can help organizational leaders and staff navigate the blurrier lines that can emerge, especially when people we are with may begin to reflect on histories of trauma or adversity. Even knowing we have a colleague or trusted friend to call for personal or professional advice can bring us peace and help us feel a little more courageous in listening to others.
Want to learn more about types of caregivers in a community, or read examples of how caregivers collaborate across professions to leverage greater care to survivors? You can do so in the Village of Care series.
This post, written by Rev. Dr. Kate Wiebe, originally was published on July 26, 2019, on the ICTG blog.
After a crisis or disaster . . . do you "move on"? Get back to "business as usual"? "Return to normal"? Find your "new normal"?
As so many of us know, all of these terms are fraught with discomfort and unease. None of them are right. All of these terms, in one way or another, can cause those of us who have survived severe loss great offense.
"There's no 'moving on,'" one woman told me this week. "And," she continued, "there's nothing normal in going forward. It's just before and after. What life was like before, and what life is like after."
This sentiment is especially key for organizational leaders to hear and keep in mind. How does your organization's mission take into account the large majority of people today who are living life with strong senses of "before" and "after"? How does your organization meet them where they are? Does your mission enhance life "after" what's happened?
We also find that too many leaders erroneously believe that allowing members of their organization to grieve, mourn, lament, or even admit some sense of despair will cause further chaos or inhibit any movement forward.
At the Institute, we find those questions are some of the most important for a leader to consider. Because your answer means the difference between being connected or disconnected with your constituents, staff, students, congregation, or community. We also find that too many leaders erroneously believe that allowing members of their organization to grieve, mourn, lament, or even admit some sense of despair will cause further chaos or inhibit any movement forward. So, instead, they strive to return to usual routines and distract their people from negative feelings by focusing everyone's attention on positive momentum.
Unfortunately, complete denial of what's happened, or how it affects people, can lead some to eventual burnout, break downs, or needing to self-medicate through excessive food, substance abuse, or forms of self-harm.
It's tricky, though. For many organizations, it's not appropriate to manage how their people are dealing with loss personally.
By encouraging your people to embrace the local "village of care" often you will find survivors resume interest in and ability to achieve your group's mission.
To navigate these common challenges, in the aftermath of loss, we encourage leaders to help their people to become mindful of what is personal or may be inhibiting their work in some way. Rather than denying these things, we encourage leaders to identify local resources where their people may turn for support as they identify personal grievances. These may include local talk therapists, art or music therapists, spiritual directors, chaplains or clergy, physical trainers or somatic therapists, physicians, friends or fellowship groups – or any combination of caregivers.
By encouraging your people to embrace the local "village of care" often you will find survivors resume interest in and ability to achieve your group's mission. Sometimes, you may also find your mission expands, in light of what's happened in the larger community.
How have you seen the "village of care" at work in your community? How have you seen it enhance your community's response to collective loss? Share in the comments below.
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This post, written by Rev. Dr. Kate Wiebe, was originally published September 10, 2019 on the
When organizations – whether they are small or large businesses, nonprofits, schools, camps, or congregations – endure impacts by critical incidents within their groups, or nearby, or experience a community-wide disaster, they can encounter more dynamics than only what is experienced through individual trauma or collective trauma.
To explore these dynamics further it will help to first go over a few definitions and distinctions.
So, what happens when an organization encounters a critical incident within its boundaries or a disaster within its vicinity? How can what the organization experienced be distinctive from other experiences of individual or collective trauma?
In some cases, what occurs within the organization may not be that different from other examples of individual or collective trauma. The determining factor, in our experience, often is the extent to which what has occurred challenges the organization's mission.
We, at the Institute, sometimes talk about collective trauma and healing in the context of how a group's spirit can break and mend.
For example, when a kids' camp sees its mission as providing youth with one of the best experiences of their lives, and then a critical incident occurs in which youth become severely injured or, tragically, die, the organization's staff and leaders may experience compounding pain related both to their grief for the harm or loss of life incurred as well as the seeming assault to their mission. They may feel great feelings of guilt or remorse at having not achieved their mission in such a devastating way.
In another instance, a natural disaster may cause such massive destruction that requires months or even years of rebuilding that an organization's mission may become completely thwarted in that area. This obstacle can be immensely challenging to take in and accept, let alone to adapt effectively.
For second responders, including disaster responders and organizational coaches, who are walking alongside organizational leaders in these types of circumstances, it is important to be aware of the three (at least) aspects of trauma that a leader may be experiencing in a widely spread post-trauma setting: individual trauma, collective trauma, & organizational trauma.
If you are interested in learning more about specific ways to support leaders impacted by critical incidents or disaster, we encourage you to explore the trainings and resource guides we offer or to reach out for a free initial consultation.
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In this series we acknowledge that "disasters do not wait until we are fully prepared", that many leaders are learning as they go, and we extend our hope that though sharing perspectives you may find some easier ways to create a new rhythm at this time. Part 3 is a reflection by two of ICTG's interns about life as college students away from campus, and their current rhythms, pacing, and nourishment.
Read a reflection on home life in What’s Working For Me Right Now - Part 1 here.
Read Part 2, A Minister's Reflection, on the Congregational Blog, here.
As college students, we are asked to adapt quickly to new challenges, constantly being assessed on our critical thinking and problem solving skills. But then came COVID-19 and our well developed habits felt obsolete. Nobody was given the chance to take Quarantine 101. While we are all feeling the aches and pains of adjusting to this new way of living, it’s tempting to forget our strengths.
We must remember: we are not strangers to change. Everyday, whether consciously or subconsciously, we are adapting to changes around us. Even though the shock of this transition is on a much larger scale, the both of us have been encouraged to see the creativity in how our peers are “making it work”. With the extra time we each have right now, we have the opportunity to self-assess how to intentionally care for our individual needs. With our intricately unique human needs, we will all need different practices to ensure health amidst social distancing and the disruption to our sense of normal.
We must remember: we are not strangers to change.
Getting active and putting my body to use during this time. It is easy to feel useless during this time. When we are sitting inside for so many hours a day, it can become numbing and leave us out of tune with our own bodies. Staying active, especially in a way that brings joy to you individually, can be so helpful! For me, it has been working well to do home workouts outside in the sun when it’s shining. Lately, I often find myself feeling like there is nothing but time, and I can quickly fall into the habit of putting off doing things that make me feel productive and energized. On days where I’m lacking the positive energy to get up and be active, it helps to ask a friend to join me in a workout. This can even be done over zoom or facetime! Setting up an accountability system with friends has kept me both motivated and made movement even more enjoyable. Not only does working out improve my mental health, but it gives me a way to cherish my body and still feel empowered when so much of the world makes me feel powerless right now. ~Jackie
We will all need different practices to ensure health amidst social distancing and the disruption to our sense of normal.
Making “pauses” a part of my WFH routine. Now that all class time, schoolwork, and internship tasks have been moved to an online platform, I could realistically spend all day with my eyes glued to a screen. At school, such screen overload was usually interrupted by physically moving from space to space. Classrooms were for instruction, coffee shops were for homework, and my apartment was for meals and socializing with friends. But when you are stuck inside your house all day, time isn’t governed by space. The first week or so at home, every room in my house became a work zone - a potential place for me to be more productive. What once were areas of rest and calm, became bombarded by technology and COVID-19 email updates. I was constantly plugged into a world outside my home, without ever being present in the environment around me. So, I hit pause. By the second week, I started leaving my laptop and phone in my bedroom, literally shutting the door, and walking away for an hour. Slowly but surely, I’ve relaxed into more of a routine, incorporating these pauses throughout my day. My morning cup of coffee does not need to be a productive hour of my life - it just needs to be a cup of coffee, and that’s okay. ~Megan
When you are stuck inside your house all day, time isn’t governed by space.
Connection with others, and also with myself. Something I have had to assess in myself with this shift in daily living is that I am very outgoing and I thrive when I have a lot of social interaction. This is of course difficult and many of us are feeling the effects of lacking social engagement. Luckily, I am living with six of my friends in my home in Santa Barbara. It has been a blessing to engage with my friends and spend time together, whether it’s working out together, playing board games, investing in new TV shows we can talk about, or cooking communal meals. Finding ways to remind ourselves of how connected we truly are is crucial right now. If you have the privilege of being quarantined with other people, setting up ways to intentionally engage with them is important during this time. And, if we are gifted with the privilege of wifi and technology, scheduling social events over zoom and setting up phone calls to check in with loved ones can remind us of how many deep connections we have in this time. Further, we can get creative and invest time in finding ways to still spread love to the people in our lives such as writing letters or putting together care packages.
On the other side of this, when we are stuck functioning in small spaces with other people it can be difficult to keep up with the equally important engagement of connection with ourselves. It took me some time to recognize that I really needed time to myself. Especially with the weight of so much being changed and out of our control, I found myself wanting to do nothing more than distract in the first few weeks of quarantine. I quickly found myself feeling disconnected and out of tune with my own feelings about the world around me. It can be easy to avoid introspection about our current situation, because so much of what is going on is difficult to process. While it is overwhelming to sit with, it has been extremely helpful for me to use practices such as journaling and going for walks alone to breathe, process my thoughts, and find my center. ~Jackie
My internship with ICTG has been an opportunity for me to continue caring for those affected by COVID-19, even remotely from my home.
Commemorating and Celebrating in new ways. As my college graduation quickly approaches, this was not how I imagined spending the last month of my time as an undergraduate student. We’ve entered a season of rapid transition, which can feel confusing, daunting, and beyond our scope of preparedness. For a little while, I was searching for how to make it be “the same”. How could I make it be as special as I had always imagined? This proved to be a frustrating exercise. So instead of focusing on the questions I didn’t know how to answer, the problems I had no solution for, I turned my attention to what I am equipped to do in this season. I tried to get creative with how I could make the most of this special time in life. I began watching movies with my roommate over Facetime and joining big Zoom calls my senior girls Bible study. I began a shared Google Drive for all of my friends to organize our favorite photos and memories from each year of college, so we can create a keepsake book afterwards. I mailed out letters of encouragement and started a book club with the kids I’ve spent years relating to through a nonprofit in Santa Barbara. I found ways to still make this month a meaningful time in my life. I also made peace with letting go of my old expectations and embracing new ways to remember and honor this time. ~Megan
Not seeing this time as a “waste”.
For those of us who thrive when we can fuel our ambitions and work towards goals, this time likely feels frustrating and depriving. With all sense of normalcy changing, and the productivity of the entire world slowing down, it is easy to feel like we are living in nothing but a waiting period. But our lives are continuing! For me, making new goals specific to being at home has been life giving. I have decided to take up new hobbies that I have not had the time to try, such as mastering rollerblading and improving my cooking skills! Having new challenges to get better at gives me something to look forward to. I also created a Quarantine Bucket List, filled with goals, other new things I want to try, and creative ideas of things to do at home. ~Jackie
In ten years time, how will we remember the weeks we spent in social isolation? If we are in good health, in a safe home, with plenty of food and toilet paper - we have much to be grateful for! There are many in our country, and certainly across the world, who are not in such an advantageous position. Although I grieve and mourn the loss of being at school right now, I am also grateful to be healthy and at home with my family. And in honor of others who have lost their lives or those they love because of COVID-19, I have chosen to not see this time period as a “waste.” I have chosen to view it as an opportunity to grow in love, compassion, and care for those who are hurting. My internship with ICTG has been an opportunity for me to continue caring for those affected by COVID-19, even remotely from my home. I’ve been able to connect with families in Ventura County, listen to National VOAD phone calls and the Santa Barbara Community Wellness Team calls, as well as assist in updating our COVID-19 resource page. Whether it’s better loving those directly in our home, or supporting nonprofits and medical professionals remotely, there are a number of ways we can all come together to support one another. ~Megan
Did you know you can give a financial gift to help support ICTG's unique learning-serving internships? ICTG interns receive one-on-one coaching and complete projects related to their community leadership interests. Help support our internship program and donate today!
Megan Davis is currently a fourth year student at Westmont College, earning a Bachelors of Science in Psychology with a minor in Religious Studies. She has a keen interest in developmental psychology and it’s relationship with trauma and resilience, especially in children and youth. When she is not studying fundamentals of counseling, or analyzing Paul’s letters to the church, you can find her in the East Side of Santa Barbara eating a taco and hanging out with a crew of kids.
Jackie George is in her fourth year at Westmont College, earning a B.A. in Psychology. She is passionate about the psychology behind connectedness and vulnerability, especially in regards to how these impact resilience and post-trauma healing. Her variety of cultural experiences have influenced her passion to better understand others and how we can support one another in a way that empowers all individuals.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) first became a diagnosis in 1980 after psychoanalysts Chaim Shatan and Robert J. Lifton lobbied the American Psychiatric Association to create a new term to describe the cluster of symptoms they and fellow clinicians were observing among clients related to overwhelming impacts from experiencing traumatic incident(s).
As they made their observations in previous years, simultaneously, sociologist Kai Erikson (1978) was documenting how a technological disaster, resulting in a catastrophic flood in Buffalo Creek, WV, devastated an entire community. Erikson noted how medical and psychological diagnoses at that point did not adequately articulate what these people experienced, which led him to consider a new concept he called disaster syndrome, and eventually to coin the term collective trauma.
According to Erikson (2005), disaster syndrome consists of the following symptoms:
Erikson observed how collective trauma worked “its way slowly and even insidiously into the awareness of those who suffer from it,” (Erikson, 2005, p. 154). He eventually came to define it as "a blow to the basic tissues of social life that damages the bonds attaching people together and impairs the prevailing sense of communality. Collective trauma may result from a sudden, shocking event, or emerge as a gradual realization that the community no longer exists as an effective source of support and that an important part of the [group identity] has disappeared . . . ‘we’ no longer exist as a connected pair or as linked cells in a larger communal body," (Erikson, 1994, p. 233).
Collective Trauma, or Disaster Syndrome, is not simply a sum of many individual experiences of trauma, but involves people individually impacted by trauma who also have a shared sense of losing what they had in common. What they had in common may be their family life, their work, their neighborhood, their faith community, their school, or their community group.
Being a leader among a group that has experienced a severe collective loss involves additional responsibilities than existed prior to what happened. Helping to navigate your group through the rough terrain of response and, potentially, rebuilding, involves particular skills, including:
None of these are easy. They take a long approach to recovery, rather than quick fixes. And they require steady nourishment along the way – physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually.
We encourage you to browse this website for further information on how to navigate long-term recovery if you are in the midst of collective trauma response. If you would like to explore more with a staff member, reach out. We'd be glad to hear from you!
Expanding understanding and best practices for leadership and whole-community care.